The predicate term of the conclusion refers to all members of
that category, but the same term in the premises refers only
to some members of that category.
- All Texans are Americans, and no
Californians are Texans, therefore, no
Californians are Americans.
- The predicate term in the conclusion is 'Americans'. The
conclusion refers to all Americans (every American
is not a Californian, according to the conclusion). But the
premises refer only to some Americans (those that are Texans).
Show that there may be other members of the predicate
category not mentioned in the premises which are
contrary to the conclusion.
26 May 1995
For example, from (i)
above, one might argue, "While it's true that all
Texans are Americans, it is also true
that Ronald Regan is American,
but Ronald Regan is Californian, so it is not
true that No Californians are Americans."