The subject term of the conclusion refers to all members of
that category, but the same term in the premises refers only
to some members of that category.
- All communists are subversives, and all
communists are critics of capitalism,
therefore, all critics of capitalism are
- The subject term in the conclusion
is 'critics of capitalism'. The conclusion
refers to all such critics. The premise
that 'all communists are critics of
capitalism' refers only to some
critics of capitalism; there may be other
critics who are not communists.
Show that there may be other members of the subject
category not mentioned in the premises which are
contrary to the conclusion.
26 May 1995
For example, from (i)
above, one might argue, "While it's true that all
communists are critics of capitalism, it is also true
that Thomas Jefferson was a critic of capitalism,
but Thomas Jefferson was not a subversive, so not
all critics of capitalism are subversives."